So some of these trends, I want to say, are long term trends. But some really reflect what we can think of as structural changes in demand. And for example, I think, in chemistry right now, we're really seeing a structural change in demand.
It used to be that over 50% of all new chemistry Ph.D.s went to industry; they went quickly to industry and they worked in industry for the rest of their career. Well, jobs in industry for chemists have been declining.
There's lots of evidence of that. The major large labs such as DuPont downsized remarkably or closed, so that piece of the market has gone, and there's been a lot of restructuring in pharma and we believe the data show that pharma has not been hiring nearly as much.
And Howard Garrison and Susan Garbi in their (FASEB) article say that, since 2011, salaries for new Ph.D.s in chemistry have been declining.Here's my brief recording of Dr. Stephan's comment on chemistry: